The complement of direction

In English we use adverbs to indicate the direction of an action, such as adverbs up, down, out, in, over. In Chinese there are verbs that contain directions, sucha as 上shàng,下 xià, they are also adjectives too, also verbs as“进jìn,出chū, 过guò” means “enter, go out, and move”. Then we add complements after the verbs to indicate the speaker’s position, both words “来lái, 去qù” are verbs, but when they are located after verbs they function as complements and indicate the direction of an action, they are called a simple complement of direction. If an action is occurring in the direction towards the speaker, we use 来lái, for the opposite 去qù is used, some common ones are listed below,

上来下来进来出来回来过来起来
上去下去进去出去回去过去
上 来 吧。(The speaker is relatively on the higher ground.)
Shàng lái ba.
Come up!

上  课了,快 进 来 吧。(The speaker is inside.)
Shàng kè le ,kuài jìn lái ba.
It’ s time for class, come inside!

If the object of a sentence is a place, it is located after the verb and before “来lái/去qù”.e.g.

小红 家 了。
dào Xiǎohóng jiā le.
I went to Xiaohong’s house.

我 正好 要
Wǒ zhènghǎo yào xià lóu.
I am about to go down the floor.

我们 教室 吧。
Wǒmen jìn jiāoshì ba.
Let’s go inside the classroom.

If the object of a sentence is a word referring to something, it can be placed before or after “来lái/去qù”, e.g.

了 一 个 照相机
dài le yí gè zhàoxiàngjī lái.
I brought a camera.

带 来 了 一 个 照相机。
dài lái le yí gè zhàoxiàngjī.

If you want to specify the movement, if it is walk, run, jump, climb, we can even add more verbs before the whole V+Complement we just mentioned above, but in this case the V+Complement will serve as a compound complement of direction,

If the object of a sentence is a place, it is located before “来lái/去qù”.e.g.

我 看见 他 走 进 图书馆 了。✓
Wǒ kànjiàn tā zǒu jìn túshūguǎn le.
I saw him walked inside the library.
我 看见 他 走 进 去 图书馆 了。 ✘
Wǒ kàn jiàn tā zǒu jìn qù túshūguǎn le.

掉 进 水 里 了。✓
diào jìn shuǐ lǐ le.
He fell into the water.
他 掉 进 去 水 里 了。 ✘
Tā diào jìn qù shuǐ lǐ le.

If the object of a sentence is a word referring to something, it can be placed before or after “来lái/去qù”, e.g.

你 看, 我 给 你 买 回来 了 什么?
Nǐ kàn ,wǒ gěi nǐ mǎi huí lái le shénme ?
你 看, 我 给 你 什么 了?
Nǐ kàn ,wǒ gěi nǐ mǎi huí shénme lái le ?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.